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in psychoneurotics in the unconscious and as symptom-creators. Of
special frequency and intensity are those which impart to the mouth and
the mucous membrane of the anus the role of genitals.
(_c_) The partial desires which usually appear in contrasting pairs play
a very prominent role among the symptom-creators in the psychoneuroses.
We have learned to know them as carriers of new sexual aims, such as
peeping mania, exhibitionism, and the actively and passively formed
impulses of cruelty. The contribution of the last is indispensable for
the understanding of the morbid nature of the symptoms; it almost
regularly controls some portion of the social behavior of the patient.
The transformation of love into hatred, of tenderness into hostility,
which is characteristic of a large number of neurotic cases and
apparently of all cases of paranoia, takes place by means of the union
of cruelty with the libido.
The interest in these deductions will be more heightened by certain
peculiarities of the diagnosis of facts.
Alpha. There is nothing in the unconscious streams of thought of
the neuroses which would correspond to an inclination towards fetichism;
a circumstance which throws light on the psychological peculiarity of
this well understood perversion.
Beta. Wherever any such impulse is found in the unconscious which
can be paired with a contrasting one, it can regularly be demonstrated
that the latter, too, is effective. Every active perversion is here
accompanied by its passive counterpart. He who in the unconscious is an
exhibitionist is at the same time a voyeur, he who suffers from sadistic
feelings as a result of repression will also show another reinforcement
of the symptoms from the source of masochistic tendencies. The perfect
concurrence with the behavior of the corresponding positive perversions
is certainly very noteworthy. In the picture of the disease, however,
the preponderant role is played by either one or the other of the
Gamma. In a pronounced case of psychoneurosis we seldom find the
development of one single perverted impulse; usually there are many and
regularly there are traces of all perversions. The individual impulse,
however, on account of its intensity, is independent of the development
of the others, but the study of the positive perversions gives us the
accurate counterpart to it.
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